The Conference of the Parties (COP in its acronym in English), commonly called World Climate Summit is the “supreme body” of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It ie the highest authority of decision. It is an association of the 194 countries that are parties to the Convention.
The COP is responsible for keeping international efforts to address climate change issues. Examines the application of the Convention and the commitments of the Parties based on the objectives of the Convention, new scientific discoveries and the experience gained in the implementation of policies relating to climate change. A key work of the COP is to review the national communications and emission inventories submitted by Parties. Based on this information, the COP assesses the effects of the measures taken by Parties and the progress made in achieving the ultimate objective of the Convention.
The COP meets every year since 1995 and the most important were:
I Conference on Climate Change (Berlin, 1995) – The first
III Conference on Climate Change (Kyoto, 1997) – Signing the Kyoto Protocol legally binding.
XII Conference on Climate Change (Nairobi, 2006) – He planned to adopt a new protocol in 2009 in Copenhagen
XV Conference on Climate Change (Copenhagen, 2009) – Failure
XVI Conference on Climate Change (Cancún, 2010) – Limiting the temperature increase to 2 degrees
XVII Conference on Climate Change (Durban, 2011) – Creation of a permanent working group.
XX Conference on Climate Change (Lima, 2014) – Zoom positions ahead of Paris
XXI Climate Change Conference (Paris, 2015)
After the failure of Copenhague’09, the expiration of the Kyoto Protocol 2012, prior commitment not overcome the barrier of 2 degrees (Cancún, 2010) and the last IPCC report (2014), it has been internationally agreed in Paris 2015 , you will have to reach a global, legally binding emission reduction agreement.
Why international negotiations fail to solve the problem of climate change?
What are the interests of countries and which factors are blocking a possible deal?
Interesting explanation made by Manuel Sabate, a member of WADA, which summarizes in less than 20 minutes more than 20 years of international negotiations.
The draft protocol resulting from the meeting of the Durban Platform in February 2015, recognizing the common goal of achieving zero emissions yet reflected in paragraph 17, three very distant approaches to mitigation efforts that the parties must perform
The Draft Protocol resulting from the meeting of the Durban Platform in February 2015, recognizing the common goal of achieving zero emissions yet reflected in paragraph 17, three very distant approaches to mitigation efforts that the parties must perform:
A). A path of sustainable long term zero emissions, for which very different milestones are proposed:
– A complete decarbonisation by 2050 and / or negative emissions by 2100 in the case of developed countries;
– A global reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 50% over 1990 levels by 2050, and thereafter continued to decrease emissions.
– Emissions of developed countries to reach its peak in 2015, with the aim of achieving zero net emissions by 2050 in the context of equitable access to sustainable development.
– That global greenhouse gas emissions will have to be, by 2050, between 40% and 70% lower than in 2010 and reach levels near or below zero Gt CO2 eq in 2100;
– To ensure rapid and substantial reductions in global emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 70% -95% from 2010 levels by 2050 and achieve zero reduce CO2 emissions and other gases long-term greenhouse in the period 2060-2080.
Option b): A full decarbonisation by 2050 in the case of developed countries, and a path of sustainable development in developing countries so that global emissions of greenhouse gases to peak as soon possible, bearing in mind that the deadline for this will be longer in developing countries, in the context of equitable access to sustainable development.
Option c) A global emissions budget to be divided among all the Parties in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention, in order to limit the increase in global temperatures this century to 1.5 degrees below, taking into the IPCC assessment. The distribution of the budget of global emissions should be carried out taking into account historical responsibilities, the ecological footprint, the capabilities and the state of development of each Party.
These approaches differ essentially by the level of demand required to developed countries; defining the content of common but differentiated responsibilities still remains one of the main points of discussion. While the G77 and China in his opening speech of the meeting of February understands that any agreement that does not reflect the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities is outside the Convention; the Umbrella Group believes that if the non-differentiation of responsibilities is unacceptable, so is the current dual approach